Public Relation Case Study: Preparedness and Understanding the Circumstances of Crisis.


Crisis costs lots of energy, money, and time and somehow it would put us in difficult deliberation on how to make such decision when dealing with crisis. The question that might come to mind is how prepare you are when the crisis is right upon you and the reputation of the company is beneath your control and communication management skills, there are several things which regularly can be pinned down to stretch out the necessity of crisis management and most of us would think it is aimed for the benefit of the company itself. Through this summary of the handbook Crisis Communication from W. Timothy Coombs, I would like to give brief correlation and cohesion of the public relation and communication management on particular and specific area which rather considered beyond our business framework at the office but unfortunately it is not far from our daily lives.

Crisis communication might occur everywhere and anytime without us to realize what truly is going on, but as we can understand failure in communication can bring serious damage to the stakeholders and the management team and at last, it would affect the public’s trust and participation. Before we move further we should first understand the concept and definition of crisis and how it works out that turn the circumstances into many possibilities which include threat, opportunity, and damage. Crisis can be defined as the condition that threatens the public safety and reputation loss, those two elements would turn the table of the stakeholders and the company into financial loss. But now let’s we see at the definition of crisis from Kathleen Fearn – Banks (2011) as the book stated that, “a crisis is a major occurrence with a potentially negative outcome affecting the organization, company, or industry, as well as its publics, products, services, or good name”, well at least we have the basic foundation for our deliberation about the definition.

Embarked from the definition of crisis above, we can correlate with the issue of crisis communication on disaster management, what we can highlight in this case is that the notion and strength of crisis communication management is to lessen the damage of the environment and avoid the casualty loss. According to Rudianto (2015) as he published an article journal Komunikasi dalam Penanggulan Bencana, he pointed the essence of communication role on disaster management is crucially needed because communication urged to spread the information about disaster – loss prevention to the targeted audiences. The information here is about conducting training and several safety procedure and also to provide the psychological preparedness for the community when the disaster strikes, this can be seen as the statement says below.

Communication on disaster is not only needed in disaster emergency condition, but also important before the disaster attacks. Preparing people in disaster critical areas must be done. Beside provide enough information about disaster potency, it also need sustainable training and behavior internalization to deal with disaster situation. (p. abstract)

Disaster management aimed to be controlled and managed properly through the relationship of communication and action, managed communication can contribute to the positive outcome and income. This can be called with crisis communications as it is defined with  the following citation.

Crisis communications is the dialog between the organization and its public(s) prior to, during, and after the negative occurrence. The dialog details strategies and tactics designed to minimalize damage to the image of the organization. (p. 2)

Citing from Banks (2011) above, the disaster management and crisis communications is to enroll the essence of relationship between the organization and the community to be strategic and mutual engagement. So, how do we measure and calculate the effectiveness of this mutual or strategic engagement? It’s simple we can identify that the public whether understand or not about the message that we are going to imply in every communication we conducted. According to Rudianto (2015) the message is enough to deal with, as he saying, “but information is not enough to increase people awareness on disaster risk. The method to deliver information must be accurate also. Inaccuracy on delivering information causes uncertainty that make worse situation”. Communication can be delivered through several media occasion but we miss something important about the essence of crisis communication here, that’s our targeted audiences, it is true that we have already delivered the message and campaign through several occasions but the questions come to our mind again once we discovered and recognized that the public did not abide the advises within the implied message.

The books of Crisis Communication from W. Timothy Coombs is summarized below, in order to give the best practice and example on how we should have used the crisis communications effectively on the targeted audiences, with the sample of disaster management.

Case Study.

Local Emergency Managers in US.

In 1977, a high school forensic coach traveled home after driving three hours in “zero visibility” (p. 245) on the road of upper Midwest, he finally  checked in the nearby  motel to settle the things up before he can continue his journey. Seeing the traffic can walk onto the road and the snow was cleared, he regularly set up his journey again but without proper provisions such as telephone, water or food and only normal clothing, covered up his body. Within 12 miles from the checkpoint his Datsun B210 stopped at the moment because its engine has been broken and the coach began roaming the FM frequency on the radio to seek further assistance. At the end of the story and after 18 long hours of waiting, another passer – by or driver rescued him.

This simple case has put us into deep thought and extended our perspectives on how the communication’s role can give better contribution for the development of crisis management center. To alter the bad luck of crisis, each community needs to be informed and well – trained about the current and incoming circumstances that might develop without knowing the essence of time, this as stressed, “to avert and survive crisis, community members need both mindfulness of the challenges they may face and community support to face them” (p. 245), that’s what exactly of the communication’s role should establish. The communication is built by each elements in the community and each of them dispatch the signal point to disseminate the reliable information that other elements can use to face the crisis, in the other side of the community, Ems which stands for Local Emergency  Managers is charged to be in the command center of developing and maintaining the efforts as stressed, “support comes most directly from local emergency managers (Ems) who are situated at the center of efforts to help individuals preparae for extreme requiring self – sufficiency”.

It has become the major role EMs to establish the term of what so called sustainability communication in the community; the first one is how to communicate the procurement of several emergency equipment and the second is how to encourage the community to make themselves understood about the complexity and urgency matters of the crisis, as stated below.

Local EMs are asked by the federal government to increase community members’ preparedness for emergencies. Specifficall, EMs are expected to encourage community residents to develop emergency plans and stock emergency kits. (p. 246)

Local managers have been urged to demonstrate how well the preparation is, which varies from the supporting tools or infrastructures and human resources, both of them are claimed to be the integrated part when the community is put together to face the “storm” or crisis. In the term of public relation here, “EMs are expected to encourage community residents to develop emergency plans and stock emergency kits”, the local managers are expected to derive the findings or research based on the condition and situation and therefore, understand the circumstances and visualize the crisis into singular perspective of concept which later can be used to ignite and the strengths over local in- sufficient preparedness as stated down below.

Specifically, we discuss the novice public relations theories implied by Ems in conceptualizing this task, the strengths and inadequacies of these notions, and the implications of our findings for local emergency preparedness. (p. 246)

Before we move to the analysis and its explanation, we should consider another option of related case study which hopefully can deepen our understanding of crisis communications role in the disaster management.

Review of Related Study.

Crisis Communication as Appeared in Hawaii Tsunami Disaster Management.

Jeanne Branch (1960) published an article Personal Account From Survivor of the Hilo Tsunamis 1946 and 1960: Toward A Disaster Communication Models has disclosed the critical situation where the crisis communication conducted by Hawaii government failed to act and lessen the damage. Most of the witnesses or survivors were interviewed and in fact admitted that the government did minimum efforts when the tsunamis hit the shore and caused the citizen to be late at responding the disaster.

Throughout the analysis, it is concluded that the Hawaii’s authority such as Department of Civil Defense, police department, and mass media had contributed the misleading information about the exact time of tsunami’s ETA when it should hit the Hawaii’s shore. This concluded that such event had contributed the amount of loss and damage as stated by Johnston (2013).

Throughout the analysis within this book it is concluded that the essence of preparedness in the term of communication is essential task and crucial that costs the most of our concerns. Society’s readiness in the face of ‘war’ must be trained and educated to increase their potential awareness so that we can reduce the damage and loss, henceforth the coordination among each department and stakeholders must be maintained with proper communication because by conducting proper communication in the way of such two way symmetrical communication can increase the potential of information flow to the targeted audience and reduce the spread of hoax or misleading information that might cause damage in the future.

Tapi harus diingat, informasi berlimpah saja tidak cukup untuk menyadarkan warga atas bahaya bencana yang mengancam. Cara menyampaikan informasi juga harus dilakukan dengan tepat. (p. 59)

The quotation above has highlighted the core message which implied on the information that delivered to the public, we have to make sure and re assure that the targeted public has received and understood the message.

Identifying Stakeholders in Disaster Management.

The handbook Crisis Communication from W. Timothy Coombs invited us to understand of essence of PR practice in the aspect of their preparation when they are asked to deal with the crisis. In order to understand the concept, this book took the illustration of local emergency managers in the US, the role of local emergency managers (EMS) has become crucial tasks and important jobs on how they carefully manage the pre – emptive action and post – related action handling the crisis, the quotation such as, “support comes most directly from local emergency managers (EHMs) who are situated at the center of efforts to help individuals prepare for extreme situations requiring self – sufficiency” (p. 246).

Before we move further about the summary and analysis, let’s strengthen our idea and perspective on why EMs are considered to be the stakeholders – well of course besides the public itself. Let’s take a look at this direct quotation, “an EM is anyone who has principal responsibility for a community or organization’s response to emergency situations. EMs work at all levels of government, and in the public and private sectors”, it’s a bit confusing and ambiguity binds our mind to which identity that represents Emergency Manager here – in this case, but what can be pinned down here is that those managers are working with the community which urged them to interact and engage with the community so that the public readiness in the term of emergency situation can be alerted, as quoted, “in addition, local EMs are responsible for communication – intensive tasks to supplement their budgets and augment their resources”. They are given huge role but 57% are high school education and less than 10% hold either a bachelor or postgraduate in many fields. I wouldn’t say that the effectiveness in crisis communication depends on the history of emergency managers’ education but it’s rather about the intense training developed by each element on the government and public itself.

On the other hand, they may lack this awareness for serious reasons. Or, they may be vividly aware of the need for household, car, and worksite preparedness, but lack the knowledge and skill to design and implement public relations  efforts to move community members from states of high vulnerability to self – sufficiency. (p. 247)

It is assumed that EMs in the other side have lack of awareness toward the preparedness of the public facing the crisis, or it might be they lack of knowledge and skill to engage and design the corrective public relations efforts so that the community is encouraged and motivated to fill the hole of their own provision when the public are forced to face the crisis.

Crisis and Public Relation Theory.

Crisis management and crisis communication are assume to be in discourse when they are put together facing the crisis as it occurred in the natural disaster because both of them must connect and work together so that the positive outcome might come as it becomes an effective crisis management as stressed down below.

Effective crisis management includes crisis communications that not only can alleviate or eliminate the crisis but also can sometimes bring the organization a more positive than it had before the crisis. (p. 2)

The effective in crisis communication often conducted with mindfulness as it encourages the people to have a better and improvement of their preparedness when facing the crisis or disaster and it must be conducted through sustainability flow of information to the targeted audiences as pinned down by this statement, “crisis communication research has shown that people and organization routinely view emergency preparedness through the lens of their past crisis experiences” (p. 247) which meant that the cycle of crisis by Robert Littlefield, Katherine Rowan, and Shari R. Veil which included pre – crisis, crisis, and post – crisis. Based on the work of Fink and Mitrof on the emergency of preparedness research, Coomb (2007) would like to elaborate the cycle of the crisis into this following form, prevention; which suggests the warning signals and urged to take immediate action to tackle the crisis, preparation; explore the fragile  circumstances which could possibly happen and hence encourages us to design the crisis plan, response; implementing the designed plan which attempt to accommodate the normal plan, revision; to develop the evaluation and advice which determine either wrong or right, this is necessary to support better and active – effective crisis communication.

However there is a cycle of crisis that is commonly used to disseminate and separate the events of crisis, according to Guth (1995), he stated that there is pre – crisis, crisis, and post – crisis. The cycle of crisis mentioned on this paragraph are basically the elaboration of each theory but they are all incorporated and make the essence of the  cycle of the crisis, which is; the preparation of the community to set themselves on readiness state and immersed in the survival state, even if the crisis might come again, the community therefore will be survive once again as implied on this statement below.

If a community survives the stages of pre – crisis, crisis, and post – crisis, it will once again find itself in the stage of pre – crisis, ideally better equipped to prepare for another crisis or possibly more fatalistic about its capacity to manage the next crisis. (p. 248)

Crisis communications as it appeared in natural disaster basically used the concept of a sender supplies the message to the receivers and the communication is considered to succeed as the sender recognizes that the receivers have understood the concept of the message, as it delivered on this quotation, “and communication succeeds according to the extent to which the intended message was received” (p. 248), meaning to say that information must be delivered as the extension or tool to disseminate the information to the specified and desired audiences.

Emergency local managers is quite different than common Public Relation practitioners, the public relation mostly concern about building reputation and sustain it, EMs concern about building public’s awareness toward the incoming or possibility of crisis or we can say natural disaster which is hard to predict and merely beyond human logic but we can calculate to reduce the damage which cost harm to the environment and society. The essence of public relation can assist the EMs role on building relationships with the local community, engage and interact with them as the notion of crisis communication in disaster management is about the readiness or preparedness of the public, the point of building mutual relationship is an intimate engagement between EMs or part of government’s body and the public as it considered as the act of prevention, this as supported with this following quotation.

Proactive public relations programs can be used to build relationships with certain publics. They can prevent crisis; they can also make these publics supportive when there is a crisis. (p. 3)

The essence of preparedness has become fundamental action and regulations that forced people to understand the role concept of proper crisis communication, it enhanced the community to educate themselves to be alert mode  whenever is necessary.

The Findings of Crisis Communication Obscurance in Disaster Management by Local US Emergency Managers.

In order to understand and how to measure the effectiveness of crisis communication in disaster management which administered by EMs or emergency managers, we would like to highlight three research questions which will be regarded as the turning point for the EMs to effectively use the role of public relations or communication in the community.

  1. What barriers and challenges that local EMs have to face when dealing with crisis communication’s effectiveness – as in accordance with intentional objectives?
  2. How do the local EMs engage with the community to promote the preparedness, such as emergency kits and emergency actions?
  3. Do the local EMs realize and understand that the community whether they prepare the emergency kits or not?

Those three research questions will be delivered to the local participants in US with the occupancy of local emergency managers (EMs) however the title of the jobs will include emergency management director, assistant emergency manager, public affairs director and public health director, as stressed within this quotation, “we conducted interviews with individuals who worked in towns, cities, or countries near the project authors”. The place of interview will be conducted at several federal states in US such as Connecticut, Virginia, Minnesota, North Dakota, and so forth.

The first answer of the research question about the barrier that prevent the effectiveness of crisis communication is that public lack of interest and seemed to be ignorant on such preparation whey the public forced to deal with natural disaster, as one Oklahoma participant remarked with quotation below.

The public in general, not just here, has a lack of information or a lack of attention to the information they receive. We work hard to get information out on severe weather safety, and we put in on TV, and we put in on our website. But invariably when something happens, people call, and they decide then is when they need to something. (p. 252)

The local managers even put their message of to several occasion on TV and related mainstream media, but the people seemed to be ignorant and put aside the information on media but when the crisis comes, the people immediately call for help and the information of first – aid is abandoned which can be said that the information has just become the cycle of wasting – product. Prior to the lack of interest hence, another one is financial problem as stated below.

Most of the office equipment is scrounged from other departments. Town’s entire budget is 10.000 USD, so grant money is essential. Equipment is difficult to obtain because it’s expensive. (p. 252)

The resourceful of information which been delivered by the authority encourage public to set themselves on readiness state when facing the crisis and one of the preparation is to to buy/obtain also sustain several supporting tools or emergency equipment from the nearby store however this comes up with great cost of money and most the people find themselves hard to accommodate such financial demands.

The next research question is answered by distributing brochures, posting information on their websites, partnering with the Red Cross, and urging preparedness when the EMs interact with the local community. However, those activities only concern about the dissemination process of information, only by using media to have in touch with the community, they forgot how to make a real program where it can encourage the people to do exactly what the EMs have always wanted, “I have no real program in effect to do that (increase the likelihood that each household has an emergency kit)” (p. 253).

Among the 47 interviewess, there are many who said they did not know anyone who had emergency kit. One or two individuals admitted they did not have a kit in their own home. (p. 254)

The quotation above embarked on the thought that none of the EMs exactly know that each household whether has an emergency kits or not. This shall create uncertainty of their dissemination process of information, this uncertainty is dangerous and can cost serious damage when the public forced to engage with the crisis.

Crisis Communication and Public Relation Analysis.

By knowing that the EMs disseminated the information through the available media it is assumed that they believed that the job was done, as stated in, “through various media channels, disseminating information was considered a measure of success for the EMs” (p. 256), in addition, they provide multilingual languages despite English language.  However they still lack of core of the information which is basically aimed for the people’s willingness on the preparedness as cited from this quotation.

They did not think that promoting emergency preparedness included listening to key publics, researching barriers to having emergency kits, developing campaigns to address these barriers, and then assessing quantitavely the outcomes of their efforts, as seasoned public relations practitioners would. (p. 256)

If the information is considered to be lack of resourceful references from the public leader, but on the  other side they  know that the public understood the circumstances of  the people also lack  of household emergency kits, despite the lack of public opinion leader they also seen as they lack “empathy” because they just sit around and do nothing and pretending that everything is just fine. EMs already acquired the information the public has insufficient funds to provide themselves with emergency kits. Actually this can be endured through partnership, because “because many examples were provided of how EMs were cooperating among other agencies and across jurisdictions” (p. 256), by conducting relationship among other stakeholders it can give positive outcome as it is necessary to provide and sustain financial aid.

Effective public relations efforts can build community support through collaborative, community based decisions regarding the kinds of risks that exists and the emergency response measures that can be initiated as needed for public safety. Collaborative planning can prevent risk events or mitigate their impact if they occur. (p. 256)

The argumentation from Heath and Palenchar (2000) above has supported that the essence of building an engagement and intimate relationship by EMs and other institutions can bring the preparedness and prevention to the better effective communication. The lack of awareness toward the public’s concerns has neglected that spheres of ethnocentricity – as it developed by Littlefield (2006).

If the publics do not believe that the emergency will directly affect them in their sphere, they will not comply. Only when the emergency happens to them might they respond. (p. 256)

Perhaps that quotation is much and more suitable to the audiences and EMs relationships, it resulted when the public is concerned about the effect, then they will respond – however this shall create the effectiveness of communication become ambiguous, as stated in this quotation, “an acknowledgement of the fatalistic or existential orientation of some cultures, which could contribute to the low compliance rate, was missing” (p. 256 – 257)

The proactive strategy must be evoked within the concept of emergency manager’s crisis communication as it tends to generate the more of openness from the government and related institution when the authorized body engages with the public, because skepticism always  come first as it has become the psychological preferences to disregard any information which not related the public’s affection. The ability to maintain the relationship is a must because it is believed by Heath and Palenchar (2000) that relationship is the process of communication process that will indulge the understanding between each party and keeping them on “learning what to do during such events”. (p. 257)

Implications for Action.

As mentioned earlier on the first and second chapter, the aspect of preparation is the most fundamental and crucial task to be done, pre – crisis event must be kept on the line with providing two – way symmetric communication – listening, discussing, and action, building partnership with local community and related organizations would sustain the culture of preparedness as the first ‘aid’ to tackle the crisis. By giving our concerns to listening the public, we would indulge the self – behavior and awareness toward the sufficiency and self – provision during disaster or crisis as stressed by Rogers (2005) in below quotation.

Attention to the public concerns about the emergency kits and their implications could benefit from the work of Rogers (2005), as he identifies the attributes of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialibility, and observability. (p. 258)

The measurable success of this action would result on the individuals preparing their self – defense with the available of emergency kits, even if during the pre – crisis.

Building relationship with related university also ignites the basic education for EMs – self and the public about the disaster management crisis – “in addition, scholars and consultants offer emergency managers numerous short webinars, seminars, and other training options.” (p. 258).

Through this chapter, this book would explore and investigate discipline theory of Public Relation, theory of crisis and risk for the benefit and influence local managers in “conceptualizing” (p. 246) the circumstances of the crisis and therefore embrace it into the strengths and emergency response to the tactical preparedness. In order to give brief explanation on how the role of communication or public relation in the aspect of disaster management, I would like to give another example of how the establishment and flow of communication is well – performed by another institutions, by creating and continuing such training and education the public would of course be more ready on controlling the threat and evoke the opportunity during the crisis.

Building community partnerships and being involved in community based participatory efforts can help EMs be mindful of the best practices and enhance strategic planning, proactive strategies, and strategic response. (p. 258).

Once again, the essence of crisis communication in any field including natural disaster is attached in the pre – crisis step, it is the phrase where we have to deepen our research, building community relationship, and situational awareness – which attends to listening the public and adhere every possibility which would drive them to be encouraged with the provided communications, Seeger (2006) stated that this kind of study is set to improve the ‘trained – process’ for the managers to think beyond the academic study for the future crisis management.


It lighten the load.


3 AM, still no words from the expedition party.

Parker : what time is it?

Sebastian : it’s 3 AM and it hits me like virgin dumped in else where.

Parker : you should take care of yourself.

Sebastian : I know but how long? it’s only us here and they’ve been roaming since afternoon. I guess we should take the pace too.

Parker : just hold on, until morning. we have took heavy fire for 28 hours. they might run dry now, but we have to be cautious.

Sebastian : we’ve been holding this defense and now it’s time to let go. we are running out of provision and supply here. we’re gonna starve to dead.

Parker : that’s an order we have to do.

Sebastian : order to die on our bed?! bloody hell!

Parker : we live based on order, as a soldier what else you do? to protect the innocent and defend the weak?!

Sebastian : we suffer great lost and you still think that way? the way to preserve self – ego? living on order is nothing less than our ego to adore something we barely know.

Parker : what then?

Sebastian : it is us to keep each other on checked.

Parker : it is fine sermon in the morning. please do continue!

the sunlight in dawn is darkened by the smoke of dozen missiles, fired up into the sky. forcing Sebastian and Parker to take deep cover in fields.

Parker : damn it…! activate the sky  dome!

Sebastian : all system fail!

Parker : take that m4s and ammos

Sebastian : we’re going to run?!

Parker : we hold the bridge once we’re clear!

Sebastian : how about the rest of the regiments?!

Parker : they can take their  own!

Sebastian and Parker seek the way out of their hideout. but Sebastian is wounded by random bullet.

Parker :  Sebastian…! no…!

Sebastian : my balls are okay? shit  man… what a bloody moment here!

Parker : you look better but your mouth still.

Sebastian : just fix me up and let me hold the bridge!

Parker : I need you alive, soldier!

Sebastian : you think i’m gonna die!?

Parker : I thought you’ve been dead many years ago

Sebastian : funny! just grab it fast!

Parker set himself away from Sebastian and Sebastian hold off the bridge.

Parker : goodluck pal!

the moment he flees to another  side of the bridge, Parker bumped up with  the ranging party.

Parker : Sir!

but it’s too late to save anybody from war.




I’ll be needing stitches: New Year 2018!


I feel like a drunken middle – age man who suffers dementia, which whole atoms in the brain fail to unite the essence of each dream ambition and yet I have built my own lies.

Throughout the previous years, I climbed the trees and stitch my wounded skin.

The scars that I’d like to show it off to my friends. Building an imaginary football field in the stormy days, I can see it but barely touch it.

The pointy – end of my finger shows exactly the confidence that I built up along with the ambitions that ruin my logic.

Ahh… common sense my lecturer taught me about.

Whole life is a lie

But I can see truth with my eye

One thing for sure I would never give

is the freedom I choose

Status is not the thing I desire

Because tonight will be new year eve

Welcome 2018! because you are my forever imagination.

CSR Study Case: Inpex Sustainability Report.


  1. Company Profile.

As taken from Sustainability Report by INPEX Corporation (2016), Inpex corporation is the leading Japanese – headquartered oil and natural gas company who has been exploring the nature business of oil and gas production in Indonesia. INPEX has commited to bring the social duty and responsibility to the environment as one of the strategic management point to improve and sustain the continues growth of corporation and social – environment, and also the stakeholders. INPEX Corporation was established in 1966, as North Sumatra Offshore Petroleum Exploration CO., Ltd and registered in Stock Exchange in Tokyo on November 17th, 2004 with code – named 1605. The big transformation and significance advance still growing amid the integrated merger between INPEX Corporation and Teikoku Oil., Ltd, and INPEX Corporation was founded to become INPEX Holdings, Inc.

With the support information as derived from Wikipedia (, on February 21th, 1966 under North Sumatra Offshore Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd, the company began her production under the regulations and PERMINA Accord as the offshore oil and gas exploration in northern shore of Sumatra Island. The corporation continues her business until present days and expanded her business through several countries across the globe, such as Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, UEA, Abu Dhabi, and Brazil. With the sufficient and indeed of financial performance and good corporate governance that established through years, INPEX has valued for 29.46 Billion Yen and equals USD 253.56 Million. The establishment of the Production Sharing Contract (PSC) with the Government of Indonesia,  INPEX Corporation has the right to manage two offshore oil and gas Blocks, Mahakam and Attaka.

As in accordance with Wikipedia (, despite the Mahakam and Attaka Oil and Gas Block, INPEX has established the Offshore Block B where it is located in Lapangan Ikan Pari, Lapangan Belida,and Lapangan Sembilang. Along with the cooperation of ConocoPhilips 40% and Chevron 25% also INPEX 35%, they have managed to produce Oil and Gas production for the export to Singapore and Malaysia. After the operation in Latuna, INPEX also managed the Offshore Northwest Java Block since 1971 with the cooperation of BP Indonesia 46%, CNOOC Southeast Sumatera Ltd (37,72%) and the another corporation 10,03%. INPEX Masela has been managed by 100% of INPEX direct management, the operation itself focuses on the hydrocarbon exploration where it is located on the sea of Arafura, 800 Km – east of Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur.

Derived from INPEX official homepage (, in order to derive the most potential of value of Oil and Gas production, INPEX has committed to deliver the corporate values to be fully conducted in the company, such as safety, integrity, diversity, ingenuity, and collaboration. The values are coordinated between each department of the company to ensure the medium and long term vision to be fully conducted so that the sustainability business plan may be achieved. Together with those values, INPEX has visioned three growth targets to be conducted such as, continuously enhancing E & P activities, strengthening gas supply chain, and reinforcing renewable energy. Those three visions also supported by three management policies, such as human resources development through organized structure, investment for the return of the profit, and management to be responsible for the global impact as derived from INPEX homepage (

Through history, INPEX Corporation has enhanced the management and concept of sustainability growth, therefore those values and management policy are the identity of corporation in order to set foot on the record of prosperous sustainability status.

INPEX is committed to contributing to the creation of a prosperous society through efforts to provide a stable and efficient energy supply. (p. 5)

The statement of Toshiaki Kitamura, Director and President of INPEX Corporation in Sustainability Report (2016) has pinned down that INPEX is rooted from the management of sustainability performance and policies, to make the society and environment become the nutrient benefit that grow the positive financial and reputation of company in the eyes of stakeholders.

  1. Sustainability Programs as License to Operate.

2.1 Sustainability as the  Prospect of Abadi LNG Project.

Corporate Social Responsibility for INPEX is the social responsibility of offshore oil and gas company that aims to develop the social programs to concern about the issue of environmental course and social conflict also local community engagement and education.

INPEX Corporation has conducted and promoted Corporate Social Responsibility as a systematic sustainability practices and chaired by INPEX representative director. With the basic policy as derived the Annual Report (2016) Corporation aims to win the trust and management of reputation through the active engagement of her stakeholders, the expectancy and focus have become the fundamental strategic point of sustainability programs that INPEX has conducted, on the other side, the importance and management of material use for the company is crucial because CSR is once again to promote the renewable of material use for the benefit of the company, society or local community, and the safety of environment itself.

As in the annual report (2016), sustainability programs in INPEX has been taken and considered as the measurable step and prevention toward particular issues that would reignite the crisis which bring the unbalance of financial and reputation of company in the eyes of shareholders and stakeholders. As in accordance with INPEX annual report, the company has formulated 4 steps of the management of CSR to be implemented in the programs. The first one is issue identification, the company would explore the social elements and environment to conduct multiple research that later would identity an issue(s), this identification would create the references toward the making – process of CSR policy. The second step is stakeholder dialogues, after the issue has been identified therefore the arrangement of stakeholder engagement through group discussion is necessary in order to expect the concerns and all matter regarding the issue in CSR, after the hearing section with stakeholders, the company therefore would set the priority first, in 3rd section refers to the sustainability programs that would deal the potential of immediate danger of particular issue so that the importance of on – going business can be maintained and preserved for long sustainability prospect. The last step is management review, this section refers to the evaluation of implemented CSR programs in the field, which parts of the programs need to be corrected or even sustain – in order to maintain the good prospect of sustainability programs.

Tanggung Jawab Sosial Industri Hulu Migas or it can be said with (TJS) as it stands for, is INPEX programs that has strategic actions and policy to create and foster the balance of country revenue, healthy environment, and social responsibility. TJS is supported with INPEX vision and mission which mainly focus on the being trustworthy and able to create good reputation as in oil and gas company and missioned with to develop the sustainability programs which are efficient and able bridge the concerns and needs of the local community as they have impact from the surrounding area of production of the company.

Based on the sustainability annual report (2016), INPEX has established the strategy as in the following orders; Operation Development and Sustainability Program which concerns all about the education and training needs for the local society and local government capacity to be enlarged to fit the citizen’s administration matters. Another education program mainly focuses on the English language teaching as foreign language in the society and local government. Economy development program is also conducted to give the proper growth of local economy such as training of Organic material use for farmers and environment and integrated seaweed plant development, also the program is supported and enhanced with disaster relief program.

Another sustainability or CSR program established by INPEX also concerns about the development of local community service. The education program is truly concerned regarding the issue that INPEX has encountered – and mainly about society being illiterate toward the reading and mathematics, the scholarship program is delivered as it fosters the capacity of society to pursue deeper knowledge and education for beyond capacity of INPEX as education provider. Despite the importance of education here, INPEX also contribute to the enhancement of local culture and to be developed for further sustainability prospect, the local culture and heritage to be developed by CSR program is Tenun Ikat. INPEX also concerns about the infrastructure because it is the second strategic point that would support education and training program for the local community and to enhance the capability of healthy environment.

In order to create the successful sustainability program or (TJS), INPEX is coordinating with the stakeholders – both external and internal as described before, because communication is essential to be fully organized. External stakeholder to be informed and socialized through discussion and report, testimony, conduct of press release, video documenter, promote local culture such as Kain Tenun Ikat, event of fashion show, and cooperate with local government MTB and Embassy of Japan. The process of communication of internal stakeholders mainly organized through publication of internal website Selecta, newsletters Gema INPEX, CSR report in the regular meeting, email broadcast, and introduce the campaign of Kain Tenun Ikat to the employees.

All of those CSR or sustainability programs, especially Kain Tenun Ikat,  are the direct involvement of strategic management to ensure the sustainability of Abadi LNG Project in Indonesia, as derived from Sustainability report (2016) below.

At the Abadi LNG Project, INPEX is conducting training for local residents with the objective of preserving, passing down, and promoting the dissemination of Ikat, traditional woven clothes from the Tanimbar Islands in Maluku Province. (p. 37)


2.2  Social Responsibility as License to Operate.

As in accordance with Thomson and Boutilier (2011) stated that Social License to Operate or SLO is “community’s perceptions of the acceptability of a company and its local operations”, therefore INPEX seeks another alternative social responsibility program that would create the mutual understanding and relationship for the company to gain trust from the local community. However, social license to operate (SLO) driven the company into complex situation which is far more than just ordinary CSR programs, Thomson and Boutilier (2011) later adopted Freeman’s (1984) definition about the stakeholder’s network effect on the company, thus the essence and impact of network would cover the necessary elements such as society and environment.

INPEX through her SLO program such as acceleration of Garuda flight in the remote island and the implementation of 4G communication have become the programs that would gain the trust and mutual relationship between company and society. The pyramid model of SLO as proposed by Thomson & Boutilier (2011) such as the psychological identification, approval, acceptance, and withheld/withdrawn have become the fundamental and based – platform for INPEX to conduct SLO.

INPEX has identified the needs of society for better access and wider telecommunication and transportation despite their existence in the remote island or environment. Therefore INPEX has coordinated with airline flight Garuda and communication operator to establish the flight route to particular islands and 4G communication – based to sustain the prospect of telecommunication. This kind of SLO program therefore has drawn an acceptance of the society because it suits the needs and concerns of local engagement, and INPEX has sustained the program for certain times.

2.3  SWOT Analysis on CSR Programs.

Strengths. Through the strategic point of CSR in education and healthy environment, the company expects to have the increasing capital revenue as the vision and mission has confirmed because the sustainable environment can impact the benefit and renewable material use that would support the cost of production process to be minimalized and the production of oil and gas can increase more so that the revenue can be accepted with imminent target, expectancy of stakeholders, and market share.

The strength of the program also indicated that traditional woven silk, Ikat can be high center of tourist attraction in Maluku Province or any other place, the people will get knowledge of INPEX image and reputation that would increase the chance of good reputation for the stakeholders. Good reputation also can be achieved with the local society as they claiming that they have the economic development and healthy environment regardless the positive impact of material use in the renewable energy. The scholarship program also ignite the chance of strong point for the human resources development in the company, the company can hire some resourceful human resources from the local community, it is proven over time that local community can ensure the stability and safety of production of oil and gas in the company since they are considered to have the bond and direct supervision toward the society and the environment.

Weakness. the preserved of traditional Kain Ikat is the weakness point instead of being called with strength point of SWOT analysis because Indonesia is a multiculturalist country with thousands of island scattered across the archipelago, and each of them is inhabited with certain indigenous people which diverse in ethnicity and cultural heritage. The weakness that is delivered in this section is, INPEX program still doesn’t touch the essence of traditional concept that would actually bring the common people or local community to address the message of CSR that INPEX has been trying to engage. The so – far of education and training program, or even disaster relief program only stretched the outer skin of social engagement in the society concept way of life. The CSR program should deal traditional and culture concept, further and deeper. The support of INPEX for traditional silk heritage is not enough and considered to be commercial product, if the company wanted to engage with the local community and gain the remarkable of provision toward the sustainable future and development? Then the company must figure it out another – alternative ways to engage the cultural concept of indigenous people so that the local people’s understanding can be high price for INPEX to take.

Development of organic material use for the farming is also another weakness because it is unnecessary for the environment healthy condition, it only brings the good side for the local community but for the environment itself doesn’t particularly has the sustainable future and development for the trees and animals. Another SLO program is new flight directed to certain of green – island by Garuda and INPEX, it may give to accessible transportation for the local people but also, on the weakness part, it ignites the fossil fuel burnt on the surrounding INPEX plantation and it resulted the increasing percentage of carbon diaxozyde in the air and contribute to the climate change or global warming.

Opportunity. INPEX should have drawn more benefit of capital revenue and reputation among the stakeholders since the programs are considered to meet the acceptance of local community’s demands and concerns and also the environment itself. The INPEX support on traditional woven silk as the representation of cultural concept is actually can be optimized more, and cover wider range of cultural heritage concept that would put INPEX corporation as the part of local harmonious elements. The local norms and values can be the references of CSR policy instead of INPEX – owned policy establishments, because the local norms and values have been established by the local community as the representation of their own social responsibility to the environment – because they live with the environment and need it to sustain their own lives. Through this explanation, it can be concluded that INPEX must concern more about the traditional and cultural matters regarding their TJS programs.

Threat. For some local people, TJS program still considered as the terms and conditions to persuade and seduce them by proposing money and infrastructures, so that INPEX can operate freely and legally without the condemn of NGO and local community’s critique. This perspective has become the condition that threaten the on – going implemented program of CSR. This negative condition surely puts the stress to INPEX as the local NGO began protesting as they demand of deep concerns about the establishment of human rights and environmental issues that cost of marine lives. The positive engagement of NGO and local community should have been the fundamental point for INPEX to establish the development and sustainable future for INPEX itself, if the company failed to address this fundamental issue, therefore the breed of crisis is imminent.

  1. Recommendation.

CSR program by INPEX raised particular opportunity and challenge toward the implementation of CSR in the process and for the sake of company’s future. Instead of bringing the company down, CSR is set to establish the investment for greater good. Therefore based on the opportunity and challenge that explained before, I would like to give the recommendation toward the CSR program by INPEX.

Indonesia is different and unique country where INPEX has began her first exploration in the beginning of 1960s, it is unique because Indonesia is a multiculturalist country with different ethnicity across the islands and most of the oil and gas company has failed to address the circumstances, most of them have been compiling their business strategy with the global trends and they fail on optimizing the local resources of traditional culture that each nation has. CSR policy and its management is the result of INPEX vision and mission and the perspective and expectancy of stakeholders, and at last for the sake of business development.

By bringing the cultural concept into the center of the stage, I would like to recommend that CSR policy should be the combination of global trends and local values and norms, therefore the implementation can be conducted in the terms of indigenous people as respective stakeholders and the healthy environment, instead of INPEX primary and business – related stakeholder. By conducting this policy it can be argued that NGO will not protest as long as it fits with the local aspirations and demands.

INPEX should plant the mangrove as one of alternative energy that can be resourceful for the marine lives to live, by sustaining the habitant of marine lives INPEX may hope to establish the sustainable basic material for the production of oil and gas in the next decades. Despite the 4G telecommunication and service flight by Garuda in certain remote island, I would like to recommend the establishment of electricity and power energy based on the solar plant, to empower the benefit of environment and the society.

One of the SLO program is Computer Laboratory, I don’t think that is essential and importance for the society. Education, environment, and technology can be combined to explore the opportunity and chances for the benefit of all elements. Therefore the laboratory of biodiversity is more important for the CSR program, it would educate the local people and have the high possibility of saving and preserving the environment and latter, it would benefit the reputation and capital (production) revenue for INPEX.




Boutiller, R. G. (2009). Modelling and Measuring The Social License to operate: Fruits of a Dialogue Between Theory and Practice. Van couver, Canada.

Corp, INPEX. (2016). Sustainability report. Corporate Strategy & Panning Unit. Tokyo, Japan.

Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston, Pitman.

INPEX Corporation as cited from the homepage of Wikipedia at

INPEX Company Profile as cited from official website at

Corporate Cultures: Respect and adore!




Today, I’ve just arrived at the Jakarta and took some naps in the boarding house at kemanggisan, West Jakarta, after spending the Christmas holiday at Yogyakarta and it was so satisfying wasting time on the “green – still” city. After finishing my morning jog at the gym this morning, I read an article from Kumparan entitled Pelajaran yang Bisa Kamu Ambil dari CEO yang lepas jabatan di 2017, such an interesting story and driven me to embark on myself-conscious so that I can deeply understand the reasons why I chose to put off my previous job at PT. Asuransi Sinarmas.

Everything is a process that needs our concern to engage the people we would share our ambitions and spend with them in precious and limited time. The article above has shared Uber CEO, Travis Kalanick’s story of why He chose to resign from the respective position in Uber. So many issues and conflicts such as scandal of sex abuse within the internal employees and misleading in delivering information about the total income of Uber’s drivers which estimated and reached IDR 1,2 billion which cost the company to pay IDR 271 billion of fined – tax to Federal Trade Commition (FTC).

The issues and conflicts above have driven Travis to put off his position because the company failed to extract the corporate cultures which supposed to be embedded in the management work of life. The company has urged to obtain and pursue the result more than recognizing the process as the company has to endure, Travis understood more about the notion of progress in order to achieve the sustainability of business rather than focusing on numbers because numbers are not the exact to point to measure the company’s success. What I can quote here “menerapkan budaya perusahaan yang lebih memperioritaskan hasil dan pertumbuhan yang cepat dibading keselamatan dan nilai – nilai karyawan tidak akan bertahan lama”
Well this story has summed up the whole things that I would like to tell, but it is yet to set on the final point.

Talking about the crisis and issue above remind me to get back to the knowledge and practice of Public Relation’s presence in the company and the technology of social media has put ourselves into greater perspectives in spreading the good values in the corporate cultures. Corporate cultures is the spirit and the heart that employees have to deal with the tasks given by their company, and it takes unprecedented amount of time and immeasurable efforts, in other words we have to recognize the process which happened and developed in our company. Then how to measure whether success or not? It is simple as we see ourselves as thousand stars that form up the galaxy, we may good at numbers and we fill each other’s holes.

Good process of time in corporate cultures can be seen with the positive engagement of our employees on everything that we try to establish, the employees might find their working place as good as their private home where the conflicts are not the final result of “grumpy employees”.
To be continue…




The flash of your scene
The only one the waiting was made
Just for the blue eye
Though the angel wont easy to come
The dark night can see

Surrounds this lion-hearted
The first morning stared
Confession was just foretold
To make our heart united
But it was never happened

You are an angel, making the direction
So there is a connection
But I cant still catch the attention
Take a look at the sky so you can see your faces in through the horizon
If you are broken
Keep the sun

See me through your eyes
And take me with you into the sapphire skies
Leaving and flying high as the sacrifices
Of my loves…

Love will find a way.



There is no doubt she’s coming for me

The eerie silence is deafening

Her footsteps, loud, drawing near

I muffle my cries

I run off into the blood red dawn

I feel her presence

I can feel her dreaming of me

Falling to my death.


She finds me

Coming closer

Inside my head

I’m screaming and trying to run

I find myself frozen in place

She draws a knife

Piercing it into my side

She kills me slowly, letting the blood drip

My feet, soaking in blood

I begin to fall onto the cold ground

Immense pain clouds my thoughts


Suddenly I’m starring into a mirror

There is a girl clutching a knife

Her eyes meet mine

They hold me like a distant light on an winter’s night

Familiar, does the light blue eyes look

The silence; the pain,

Driving me insane

The mirror cracks; shatters,

Into pieces

Pieces that will never be put back together.